PARALLEL pathways are pervasive. Blood flows from the heart to the brain through three separate arteries; in the event of a blockage in one artery, blood is routed through the other two. We have two kidneys but need only one. If I want to drive from Champaign to Charlottesville, I can go by way of I-70 or I-80, or I can explore the blue highways. If I want to get from Champaign to Chicago, I can fly, take the bus, drive, or take the train. If I drive to Chicago and get caught in traffic on the Dan Ryan expressway, the side streets are always an option. And so on.
Parallel pathways can operate simultaneously or non-simultaneously. Simultaneous pathways are generally preferable since they provide an increased margin of safety from real-time redundancy. Both kidneys work continuously; they do not alternate or take vacations. The same goes for eyes and ears. The existence of multiple modes of transit between Champaign and Chicago means I can almost always get there, one way or another. The Boeing 777 can fly on only one engine, but both engines are used simultaneously. If you want to be safe, a “belt and suspenders” approach is better than either one alone.
What, if anything, do parallel pathways have to do with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“PPACA”), apart from the coincidental usage of two “Ps” in each? In their insightful and tightly reasoned article, Professors Monahan and Schwarcz work their way through a series of interlocking provisions in PPACA and explain how they make it possible for employers to “dump” high-risk employees onto the state-run exchanges scheduled to commence operations in 2014.
Stated less pejoratively, PPACA makes it possible for employed workers to obtain health insurance coverage through either their employer or an insurance exchange, with differing financial (and potentially health) consequences depending on whether the employer is offering affordable coverage (or coverage at all) and the income and health status of the employee. This parallel pathway expands the options through which employees can get to their desired (and/or mandated) destination—having health insurance.